Climate change will affect the Department of Defense’s ability to defend the Nation and poses immediate risks to U.S. national security. The Department is responding to climate change in two ways: adaptation, or efforts to plan for the changes that are occurring or expected to occur; and mitigation, or efforts that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This Climate Change Adaptation Roadmap (Roadmap) focuses on the Department’s climate change adaptation activities.
This is a report on core competencies, growing skills, preparing for the future. The Looking-Glass Institute conducted extensive interviews with 36 Executive Directors in Pittsburgh, PA. Funded by Bruner Foundation, Heinz Endowments and the Forbes Funds, this work has broad implications for both grantmakers and their grantees.
The PCBR database contains 401 descriptions of capacity-building programs being carried out by U.S. foundations. From this database, you may obtain program profiles and conduct searches for programs under one or more search categories, as defined below.
Organizations use policies, usually written statements, to clarify their guiding principles, i.e., acceptable and unacceptable
procedures. The development of specific, evaluation-related policies about, for example, leadership succession or staff
development, can help to extend or sustain evaluative thinking in organizations.
Organizations can learn a lot from and about their staff using evaluation data collection strategies such as surveys, interviews
and record reviews. As shown below, information about staff and their actions, perceptions and feedback can be used to inform
organizational practices. Remember, organizations that regularly use evaluative thinking ask questions of substance (including
questions about their staff), determine what data are needed to address the questions and how those data could be obtained,
systematically collect and analyze data (including staff feedback), share the results and develop strategies to act on findings.
Organizations typically need technology systems for four main purposes (1) management support (e.g., for use with financial,
HR, or procedural information), (2) internal and external communication (e.g., email capability, proposal or report development
and submission, contact with program participants/others), (3) program operations (e.g., archiving and record-keeping, best
practice research, program descriptions, logic model development) and (4) evaluation (e.g., programs, overall organizational
effectiveness, clients). An organization that is committed to evaluative thinking embraces supportive technology use â€“ in other
words, they ask questions about whether the organizationâ€™s hardware and software inform organizational and program practices,
they systematically collect data about technology systems in use to ensure that they truly are supportive, and they analyze and
act on the data that is collected (i.e., technology changes are made based on information).
There are multiple ways to communicate about and use evaluation findings. Results of surveys, interviews, observations etc.,
can be incorporated into planning processes and as described in both previous and following sections, basic assessments of
many organizational procedures can be undertaken to inform ongoing organizational practice. When a more complete evaluation
is conducted however, for example of a specific program, the results of that evaluation are usually summarized into an evaluation
report. The following provides some guidelines for completing a formal evaluation report, which by the way should be started
during the data collection phase of evaluation.
As stated previously, choosing data collection strategies (e.g., surveys, observations, record reviews) depends upon the purpose
of the evaluation, the evaluation questions, the time frame, and the available resources. Evaluation assistance can be
obtained from independent technical assistance or evaluation consultants, evaluation or other technical assistance
consulting firms, and sometimes universities with graduate programs that include training or projects in program
evaluation. Before you hire any consultant or organization be sure to find out whether they have: experience with program
evaluation, especially with non-profit organizations; basic knowledge of the substantive area being evaluated; good
references (from sources you trust); and a personal style that fits with your organizationâ€™s working style. Think long and
hard about the purpose of the evaluation project you are considering. This bulletin will help you understand: differences between
research and evaluation, what evaluation should cost, and what you should think about before you initiate it.
The four key components of Evaluative Thinking â€“ asking questions, systematically gathering data, analyzing data and sharing
results, developing action steps â€“ can be applied to most aspects of your organizational practice. But they require you to put
evaluation skills to use.
Many years of participatory evaluation practice show that involvement of multiple stakeholders is beneficial. It is our steadfast
belief that evaluators, funders, program providers and their board members can all be meaningfully engaged in program
evaluation, but all parties need to be on the same page about the following.
1. Evaluations are partly social (because they involve human beings), partly political (because knowledge is power), and only
partly technical (Herman, Morris, Fitz-Gibbons, 1996). All three of these evaluation features, not just technical design,
should be considered when stakeholders discuss evaluation.
2. Evaluation data can be collected using qualitative methods (e.g., observations, interviews) and/or quantitative methods
(e.g., surveys, practical testing of subjects). Although there has been much debate about which strategies and types of data
are best, current thinking indicates that both are valuable, can be collected and analyzed rigorously, and can be
combined to address key evaluation questions.
3. There are multiple ways to address most evaluation needs. Different evaluation needs call for different designs, types of
data and data collection strategies.