» Land Restoration

Nonpoint Pollution for Municipal Officials (NEMO): Tools and Resources

Basic NEMO (Nonpoint source pollution Education for Municipal Officials) presentations, fact sheets, and soap box articles regarding the link between land use and water quality. NEMO has come to stand for outreach programs that provide resources that allow for good land use planning and site design that balances growth AND environmental protection. Read More

Understanding the Motivations, Satisfaction, and Retention of Landowners in Private Land Conservation Programs

Private land conservation is an increasingly popular approach to protect critical biodiversity. In the Western Cape Province of South Africa private land conservation is the focal strategy for CapeNature, the provincial conservation agency. Despite its importance, little is known about the drivers of landowner participation in the CapeNature program and how these varied motivations influence participant satisfaction and retention. Our psychometric survey of 75 enrolled landowners found that the highest ranked motivations to participate were Conservation and Place Attachment but Social Learning had a stronger influence on program satisfaction. Landowners participate to fulfill a motivation or set of motivations but their satisfaction and commitment may hinge on other unforeseen motivations or factors. Understanding the relationship between motivations, satisfaction, and commitment is necessary for a successful retention strategy in any conservation program, especially on private lands where success depends on landowner commitment. This research was incorporated into improving CapeNature’s program delivery. Read More

Rivervision: Consensus Plan C

Map of urban wetlands and green spaces along the Mississippi River at Davenport, IA and Rock Island, IL Read More

Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development

This report discusses some vital services that natural ecosystems contribute to human health and development. Read More

Measuring Human-induced Land Subsidence from Space

Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a revolutionary technique that allows scientists to measure and map changes on the Earth’s surface as small as a few millimeters. By bouncing radar signals off the ground surface from the same point in space but at different times, the radar satellite can measure the change in distance between the satellite and ground (range change) as the land surface uplifts or subsides. Maps of relative ground-surface change (interferograms) are constructed from the InSAR data to help scientists understand how ground-water pumping, hydrocarbon production, or other human activities cause the land surface to uplift or subside. Interferograms developed by the USGS for study areas in California, Nevada, and Texas are used in this Fact Sheet to demonstrate some of the applications of InSAR to assess human-induced land deformation. Read More

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a ‘from-to’ class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001. Read More

Factoring Uncertainty into Restoration Modeling of In-Situ Leach Uranium Mines

Postmining restoration is one of the greatest concerns for uranium in-situ leach (ISL) mining operations. The ISL-affected aquifer needs to be returned to conditions specified in the mining permit (either premining or other specified conditions). When uranium ISL operations are completed, postmining restoration is usually achieved by injecting reducing agents into the mined zone. The objective of this process is to restore the aquifer to premining conditions by reducing the solubility of uranium and other metals in the ground water. Reactive transport modeling is a potentially useful method for simulating the effectiveness of proposed restoration techniques. While reactive transport models can be useful, they are a simplification of reality that introduces uncertainty through the model conceptualization, parameterization, and calibration processes. For this reason, quantifying the uncertainty in simulated temporal and spatial hydrogeochemistry is important for postremedial risk evaluation of metal concentrations and mobility. Quantifying the range of uncertainty in key predictions (such as uranium concentrations at a specific location) can be achieved using forward Monte Carlo or other inverse modeling techniques (trial-and-error parameter sensitivity, calibration constrained Monte Carlo). These techniques provide simulated values of metal concentrations at specified locations that can be presented as nonlinear uncertainty limits or probability density functions. Decisionmakers can use these results to better evaluate environmental risk as future metal concentrations with a limited range of possibilities, based on a scientific evaluation of uncertainty. Read More

USGS - Providing Scientific Understanding of the Sagebrush Biome

The USGS is working with many partners to improve understanding of the sagebrush habitat and to provide information needed to manage and restore the ecosystem and the species that depend on them. Research examples higlight the diversity of USGS science capabilities. Read More

Soil Erosion

Erosion is the wearing down of the surface of the earth due to the action of wind, water and gravity. It is a natural process and shapes the landscape around us. Use of land by man for agriculture, forestry, and transportation has accelerated these processes Accelerated erosion has occurred in all the agricultural regions of Canada. Read More

U.S. Geological Survey and the Chesapeake Bay -- The Role of Science in Environmental Restoration

The Chesapeake Bay is the Nation’s largest estuary and historically has supported one of the most productive fisheries in the world. The 64,000-square-mile watershed of the bay provides vital habitat for migratory birds using the Atlantic Flyway. In addition to supporting aquatic communities and wildlife, the bay’s watershed serves the economic and recreational needs of 15 million people. The fertile soils of the watershed support significant agricultural production. The agricultural products and other goods produced in the watershed are shipped through ports on the bay, such as Baltimore, Md., and Norfolk, Va., to the world. Read More


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